How do hiccups happen?

Answers:    Excessive eating, alcohol, excitement or stress can over-stimulate the phrenic nerves – which control the diaphragm. The diaphragm then contracts involuntarily. Then at the same time, the glottis – the part of the larynx where the vocal chords are located – closes up. And according to gastro-enterologist Patricia Raymond, this results in the spasms and the odd “hic” sound that repeats every few seconds. A typical case of hiccups only lasts a few minutes, but some can go on and on. And while there’s no cure, holding your breath or breathing into a paper bag can help. It “resets” your phrenic nerves – kind of like rebooting a computer.
A hiccup or hiccough (normally pronounced "HICK-up" (IPA: [ˈhɪ.kʌp]) regardless of spelling) is an involuntary spasm of the diaphragm; typically this repeats several times a minute. The sudden rush of air into the lungs causes the glottis to close, creating the "hic" listen (help·info) noise. A bout of hiccups generally resolves itself without intervention, although many home remedies are in circulation that claim to shorten the duration, and medication is occasionally necessary. By extension, the term "hiccup" is also used to describe a small and unrepeated aberration in an otherwise consistent pattern. The medical term is singultus.

While many cases develop spontaneously, hiccups are known to develop often in specific situations, such as eating too quickly, taking a cold drink while eating a hot meal, eating very hot or spicy food, laughing vigorously or coughing, drinking an alcoholic beverage to excess, or electrolyte imbalance. Hiccups may be caused by pressure to the phrenic nerve by other anatomical structures, or rarely by tumors and certain kidney disease. It is reported that 30% of chemotherapy patients suffer singultus as a side effect of treatment. (American Cancer Society)

Rare and prolonged cases of hiccups include a man named Charles Osborne who had the hiccups for 69 years, and in January 2007, a St. Petersburg Florida USA girl, Jennifer Mee, contracted hiccups for 5 weeks.
the short version: Too much air in the stomach.
Generally, hiccups came about when one eats too fast. Air and foods are trapped.

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